Contraception means the “prevention of conception or impregnation.”
Contraceptive management is simply, a means of preventing impregnation.
Modern birth control methods:
Male Condom- a mechanical barrier which prevents pregnancy by stopping sperm from entering the vagina. They are also useful in helping protect sexual partners from sexually transmitted infections (STIs).
Female Condom- The female condom has a flexible ring at each end–one secures behind the pubic bone to hold the condom in place, while the other ring stays outside the vagina.
The Pill- combined contraceptive pills have two hormones- an estrogen and progestin. They stop the release of the egg (ovulation), and also make the lining of the uterus thinner. When used correctly about 3 in every 1,000 women will become accidentally pregnant in the first year.
Contraceptive Patch- a trans-dermal patch applied to the skin. it releases synthetic estrogen and progestin hormones. They have been shown to be as effective as the combined oral contraceptive pill. The “Patch” is worn each week for 3 consecutive weeks, generally on the lower abdomen or buttocks. the fourth week is patch-free.
Contraceptive vaginal ring (NuvaRing)- It is a flexible plastic ring that releases a low dose of a progestin and an estrogen over 3 weeks. The woman inserts the NuvaRing into the vagina for a 3-week period, and then removes it for one week, during which she will experience a menstrual period.
Contraceptive Injection (The Shot)- Injected every 3 months. It stops the woman from releasing an egg and provides other contraceptive effects.
Intrauterine Device (IUD)- a small, flexible T-shaped device that is placed in the uterus by a physician. It is also known as a coil. It stays in place the entire time pregnancy is not desired. Depending on the type, an IUD can last from 5-10 years.
Vasectomy- a surgical procedure designed to make a man sterile. The right and left vas deferens- the tubes through which sperm pass into the ejaculate- are cut or blocked. Although a vasectomy is sometimes reversible (vasovasostomy) the likelihood of an abundance of abnormal sperm is higher, resulting in lower fertility.